Assignment: Final Deliverables for 3D Printing



Description about the tasks, environment, and personas (updated)

–   Print ingredients for Kimbap
–   Print Korean letters for Kimbap

–   Classroom


Highlight 5 important variables relating to their interest in 3D printing
Two personas (#1 and #2) from this list appeared in the video.

1. Moon-Hee Kim (main teacher)

main teacher

  • 5 years teaching experience at Korean school
  • Works as a part time employee at a company and teaches Korean school on Saturday
  • Wants to use more hands-on materials or replicas in class such as plastic Korean letter pieces, miniature, etc. However, due to a lack of budget and time to prepare, she mostly relies on handouts or paper versions of instructional materials for students
  • Many times, gets teaching ideas through her 9 year old daughter
  • Familiar with technology and searches a lot of resources from the Internet

2. Sieun Kim (student)


  • 9 year-old female student who has been attending the Korean school for 4 years
  • Enjoys learning Korean language and culture at school
  • Likes role play in class
  • Tends to finish tasks quickly and likes to help peers
  • Familiar with using her parents’ iPhone

3. Hyun-Mi Choi (folding paper teacher)

folding paper teacher

  • 15 years folding paper (origami) teaching experiences
  • Recently started running her homepage but is not good at managing it. She uses her homepages mostly by uploading pictures and adding messages.
  • Currently teaches preK-Kindergarten class at a Korean school, tutors kids, teaches seniors, and works for the Korean folding paper association
  • Also uses other materials in her folding paper class, such as beads, ribbons, frames, etc.
  • Always tries to teach Korean language and culture through her class, such as shapes in Korean and background of what students will make, etc.

Required Readings: Design and Testing with Diverse Populations

Participatory design with amnesiacs 

In order to develop a viable assistive application, participatory design is essential as users can involve in designing tools or devices that they may use in the future and that designers can get better ideas while they are doing with participants. The article presents an orientation aid for amnesiacs, who have a problem of disorientation and are susceptible to feeling lost or fear when they are alone. It looks that they might act better when something is structured and if there is a caregiver for them because then, they can get a clue what they have been doing and where they are. Assistive devices can help amnesics; however, they may be hesitant to use the devices because it could label them as impaired in public. The OrientingTool for Palm devices has been developed to accommodate the needs of amnesics. People wouldn’t recognize this PDA type of device is an assistive application for those are memory impaired, and amnescis can effectively manage their situations without getting lost with the aid of this device.


Representing users in accessibility research

In HCI, participants are an important factor since the results from users abilities can be replicated and generalized to new situations. Preliminary evaluation of a new technology may require non-representative users, such as college students. When recruiting participants is limited, alternative study designs may be needed to analyze results. However, the article emphasizes including representative users for effective accessibility research. For example, blindfolded sighted users may participate in a study in replacing blind users for a technology tool. However, the study reveals different results between two groups: actual blind participants and blindfolded sighted participants. Blind users performed using commands more than a non-representative group, checked the starting point very often, and navigated tools differently. It shows that how important representative users involvement is as the information affects the development of the tool.



Assignment: Storyboard

Storyboard #1 (initial sketch)

storyboard #1

Storyboard #2 (updated sketch)

storyboard #2

Storyboard #3 (with photos)

storyboard with photos

In my storyboard, I added a Korean teacher and two kindergarten students who are learning how to make Kimbob which students can learn Korean culture and language. I tried to closeup (CU)  the objects what the students are learning over their shoulders (OTS).

A reviewer understood what the scenario is, but she wondered why I was trying to make this storyboard because she didn’t see any particular use of a 3-D printer. Even though I explained that the objects will be printed by a 3-D printer and that the students will play with them instead of making real food. The teacher can easily prepare the teaching materials. However, the reviewer thought students could use clay or toys for this instruction. She also addressed that what’s the importance in using a 3-D printer.

After getting this critique, I immediately revised my storyboard instead of getting another reviewer, because there is no indication of the 3D printer in my storyboard and it makes other people have the same issues.  With the storyboard #2, I asked three people to look at the storyboard if they understand what the scenario is, if the story makes sense, if there are anything confused, and if there is too much details or little. However, three of them responded in a same way. They said that the storyboard looks good and that they understand the flow of the story. They just wondered if this is for teaching Korean culture or Korean language. They just mentioned that it might be good for an instruction making Pizza or Bibimbob – another Korean food mixing vegetables with steamed rice.

I wanted to show this revised storyboard to the first reviewer, but I couldn’t have a chance to do it. Since the other reviewers didn’t give critiques to make changes to the revised storyboard, I just use this as a final version.

Inspiration: 3-D Motion Control

Video clip:

Minority Report-Style User Interface Might Make HP Cool Again

Leap Motion to Bring 3-D Motion Control to HP Customers through Strategic Collaboration

In the movie “Minority Report,” the actor uses his hands or fingers to open a file and to check the content. The 3-D motion control makes that happen. Leap Motion announced collaboration with HP to embed this device in future computers and to provide incredible user experience. Without touching keyboard, pad, or mouse, we can use our computer just by our finger movement.

Assignment: Idea generation


Rolestorming: By pretending someone else, people may feel comfortable coming up with ideas from someone else’s perspective. I chose this brainstorming method because it would be good to create role-play activities. A teacher may print people, such as family members or people with various jobs, so that students can practice and develop their speaking and listening skills through a role-play activity using 3D objects. Thinking of “what you want to be (in class)” made me a little bit hesitant to create more ideas since it includes human being or animals. Maybe I could’ve included things, such as tables, chairs, etc. since children’s imagination is infinite.

Idea Trigger Method: This technique asks people to brainstorm ideas as many as possible and then select the best ones. People may trigger more ideas based on selected ones. It might be good to compile and classify ideas before getting more ideas. It was good for me to come up with ideas of how to use 3D prints in class in details; however, removing similar ideas might not be a good idea for class activities since teachers can always use the same idea in different ways.

Random Input: This requires people to pick a random word, picture, or sound from a dictionary, website, book, TV, etc. After selecting a word, we need to think how we can use it in a situation. It’s easy to come up with ideas since most of the words I selected were nouns, which can be easily made using 3D printer. However, main idea of using 3D print is students’ Korean learning, I was a little bit concerned if my idea was too much toward the activity class even though it is good for kids to learn Korean culture.


Applying different brainstorming techniques enabled me to think usage of 3D objects in different ways, which are useful for teachers to develop their lessons. I used Rolestorming technique to create human beings who students may want to be. Trigger Method was helpful to get an idea of lesson plans. Random Input was the easiest one that I could come up with many ideas using 3D printer for teaching Korean language and culture. I wanted to use Bootlegging technique in a group because it was a good way to get creative ideas by mixing individual’s ideas. Unfortunately, I couldn’t even apply the other techniques with other people this time. I think brainstorming in a group always can create better ideas.

30 ideas


  1. Mom – print a mom wearing a pretty cloth, such as a lacy dress with ribbons.
  2. Dad – print a dad with a casual clothes who is reading a newspaper.
  3. Sisters – print two sisters, which a student can play as an older sister. The student may say, “let me play with you.”
  4. Firefighter – print a firefighter wearing a uniform, which can play a role of getting on a fire truck and putting out the fire.
  5. Aunt – print a pretty aunt similar to a mom, which students can play as a nice aunt who always takes good care of them.
  6. Doctor – print a doctor with a stethoscope, which students can pretend as a doctor to take care of patients. The student may ask the patient “is something wrong with you?” “let me examine” using a stethoscope.
  7. Nurse – print a nurse with a uniform, which students can play a role by giving a shot to patients. The student may say to the patient “let me give you a shot.”
  8. Patient – print a patient with a bandage around his arm. The student may say to the doctor “my arm is broken.”
  9. Cook – print a cook with a uniform, which students can play as a cook. The student may say “let me cook for you” and fix the table.
  10. Artist – print an artist and printing materials, such as an easel, brush, and palette, which students can pretend as an artist.

Idea Trigger Method

  1. Ask students to write Korean letters (consonants and vowels) and print them out. And ask students to make words (e.g. their name, objects that they learned) using 3D prints
  2. Ask students select what they want to write about and print the objects. Ask students to write a short sentence(s) with a drawing and put a 3D object to their writing.
  3. Print Korean letters and ask students to make as many words as possible in groups within a certain time.
  4. Using the Korean letters printed, ask students to make words and attach them on the objects in the classroom.
  5. Print the objects that students learned in class and hide the objects in the playground. Ask students to find them.
  6. Print animals and use them in a puppet show in class.
  7. Discuss with students what we need to build a town. Print objects (e.g. houses, trees, cars, people, etc.) and have students build a town using those 3D objects.
  8. Have students draw their mailbox along with a symbol to be attached to the mailbox. Print them for students to use in class activities (e.g. put a letter in their friend’s mailbox).
  9. Using the letters, ask students to make words and put all the letters in their box. Have students to switch their box with their partner and have him/her make words and see what they make.
  10. Put the letters and the objects a little far away. In groups, have students come up with words relevant to what the teacher indicates (e.g. a ball for “round”). Ask students to use the letters and the objects over there and put as many objects or words on the paper.

Random Input

  1. Cup holder – for the folding paper class, print cup holders so that the students can put their paper cups to the cup holders.
  2. Tree – print a big tree or print small pieces to make a big tree. Have students make paper frames and put their name using 3D letter pieces on the frame. Have students decorate the 3D Christmas tree using their name frame.
  3. Flowerpot – for the folding paper class, print flower pots, leaves, and stems. Have students make paper flowers and complete the project of “Spring” using paper flowers and 3D objects.
  4. Picture frame – for the folding paper class, print picture frames with different shapes (e.g. rectangle, triangle, circle, etc.). Have students make paper birds, leaves, or flowers. Have them put those paper objects to the 3D picture frame.
  5. Lipstick – girls like to use their mom’s lipsticks. Print a lipstick and ask students how this looks like by eliciting the words about shape and color (e.g. long, red, etc.) Ask the student how she will be using this.
  6. Numbers – print numbers. Have students listen what the teacher is saying in Korean and have them answer putting the 3D numbers on their desk.
  7. Vegetables – print vegetables and give them to students. Have students say in Korean what vegetable they got and put them in their tray. Have students which vegetable they like or dislike.
  8. Clock – print clocks but print hour/minute hands separately. Have students put hour and minute hands by responding to what the teachers is telling about the time.
  9. Car and airplane – print several kinds of cars and airplanes. Have students choose what they like, and ask them to explain about their choice
  10. Kimbob (food like sushi) – print all ingredients of making Kimbob, such as, steamed rice, seaweed, ham, yellow pickled radish, egg, cucumber, spinach, etc. Have students simulate how to make Kimbob using those.

Evaluation method
Instead of selecting ideas by myself, I briefly presented all my ideas to a user and have her to select three. She chose four ideas, which include firefighter (Rolestorming), making letters as many as possible in groups (Idea Trigger), tree (Random Input), and Kimbob (Random Input). The reason she selected those was it could motivate students’ learning by letting them play using 3D prints. Since I had the same idea with her and I wanted to more focus on language education, I removed the idea of a tree, which is more good for the folding paper class.

Summary of initial user reactions
Since I couldn’t meet a teacher at Korean school, I asked one of my colleagues who is a Korean studying and working at UMBC. After selecting three ideas, we came up with more ideas from those three – Idea Trigger Method!  For example, from the firefighter idea, we created more items related to this idea of rescuing people or animals, such as houses, water, a hose, fire trucks, and animals. Letters can be used very often in class by asking questions and having students making many letters or by letting them play in groups.

Among the three ideas, she liked the Kimbob (Korean food like a sushi) idea since visual objects can motivate students to learn all ingredients, create their own recipe, and play by using these 3D prints before they actually make Kimbob. The user also addressed that students can develop their numeral and spatial concepts since they are assembling pieces to create one.

Optional Reading: Animation and Tweening

A designer may use motion paths using MS PowerPoint to illustrate animation and more interactive effects for viewers. However, when presenting more complex scenario with multimedia animation, the designer may need an advanced tool. Adobe Flash provides functions of keyframe and tween, which enable a designer to create more powerful animation for an interactive system design. Another way to illustrate an interaction is using a movie. While people are watching a video, individuals may understand better transitions and what’s going on next. To make a video sketch, some materials were introduced in this article, such as, sticky notes, paper, and transparency. A video editor software may be needed to edit later recording a video.

Required Readings: Animation and Tweening

Interaction design focuses how a user behaves when using a system. Even though a system is aesthetically well designed, if its usability is poor and the design doesn not well reflect how the user will react, the system may not work well. Storyboards help a designer view key ideas and images, sequence of each frame, and decision paths.  When working on a sequential storyboarding, the designer may have to think about what sketches need to be included to key frames and what annotations are also needed between transitions. The state transition diagram shows a moment during the interaction and a transition which triggers a change in state. The diagram can be presented in a form of abstract, visual interface, annotated and indexed state transition diagrams. Branching storyboards illustrate techniques how to manage a multitude of decision paths. Narrative storyboards provides interaction context such as environments, people, and events

Storyboard presents a sequence of user interaction and provides overview of how the system will work. By adding animation to the storyboard, viewers may feel more interactive with the system. Presentation tools, such as Microsoft PowerPoint, can be used to present a sequence of interacting a system. The article shows how to create slides including a master frame and how to embe each frame in the same location. Letting a user just watch the slide show may not provide enough feeling of interaction to a viewer. Adding motion paths to the slides, the viewer’s experience may be augmented. Branching storyboards present multiple decision paths. Hyperlinks can be used on the slides to illustrate the next frame depending on what a viewer decides to select by clicking on a particular item.

Optional Reading: Engaging older people using participatory design

While the use of digital technologies has been increased, the design for older people has not been provided well. The article suggests participatory design to improve the quality of design for elders addressing issues. Older people are willing to adapt new technology but they are more likely afraid of using the technology and do not consider devices as useful tools. Too much emphasis on different functional characteristics between older people and younger people can be challenge to designers. Other challenges include that the older people tend to digress the focus and to make a conversation with unrelated matters, as well as to envision future technologies intangible. The designer also has a tendency to over analyze the elders, and the design is held not in a workplace. The OASIS approach presented in this article focuses on how structure design for older people as well as how to motive design teams to work with the elders.



Optional Reading: Comicboarding

It’s interesting to know that comicboard can be used as a participatory design. Scaffolding is used for children’s learning who needs an aid of a more capable guide, such as adults or any kinds of scaffolding supports. In act, comicboard is a useful tool for children to brainstorm and elicit their ideas. Children may fill in partially complete comic strips by either writing their own idea in a word balloon or adding their drawing. In this article, three approaches were examined which includes storyboarding, comicboarding, and using masic. The results show that children were frustrated in storyboarding due to its open-ended nature. Children were fascinated about the ‘magical’ factor, but this magicboarding approach also reveals their pressures of the task. Among these three methods, comicboarding was more successful by providing more detailed ideas. However, the researchers address that dialogue blanks may limit children to offer their ideas.

Required Reading: Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI

Participatory Design involves end-users’ participation in activities of computer products or related activities in order to elicit hybrid experiences in a domain between workers and software professionals. This “in-between” realm or “third space” is a place that provides new insights, understandings, and diverse knowledge for products and work practices.  This article presents several participatory practices related to third spaces in HCI, including siting, workshops, stories, end-user photography, dramas, creation of shared languages, descriptive artifacts, and working prototypes. All approaches presented in this article emphasize communication and understanding through diverse group in “third space.” Below is a summary of each participatory practice.


Siting involves bringing designers and workers in a workplace or a design room. This can improve understanding and learning new ideas from divers parties and can build a strong commitment and ownership. Workshops can help stakeholders communicate, develop new concepts, and share ideas from diverse participants. Stories and storytelling can be used to elicit conversation, analysis, or feedback, end-users contribution to the knowledge, and concepts of design from the design team. Photographs can be used as a medium in informal and formal worlds by providing richer, contextualized communication and leading designers’ strong engagement in end-users’ worlds. Drama is another way of story telling. Workers may act out their new ideas. This approach can be used for a focus group for a similar setting, which has not yet developed. Drama can provide building bridges between users and software professionals, enhancing communication, and increasing designers’ empathy for users and work. Game is a highly conversational approach, and players can reduce their anxiety and uncertain situations. This involves players to work together, which can lead their mutual learning and enhance their teamwork and communication. Collaborative construction involves negotiations of multiple knowledge within the team or between the team and its clients or stakeholders. Descriptive artifacts can be used when there is a non-standard medium. Low-tech prototypes can bring new insights of new technologies. Software prototyping can enhance communication with end-users.